Within the framework of two case studies ARISCC investigates in detail what elements of the railway infrastructure are impacted by today’s extreme weather and what elements are potentially vulnerable under future climate conditions. Regional Climate Models will be used to quantify the expected climate loads for the 2030ies, 2050ies and 2080ies. The first case study covers the railway lines in the Rhine Valley – from the Alpine regions at the source to the flatlands at the estuary. The second case study is the West Cost Main Line running from London to Glasgow in the UK. By means of alternative cost scenarios the pros and cons of early and late adaptation measures are being discussed.